Monday, January 30, 2017

Pennington’s in Ashe Co., NC in Early Census Records - 1810

As previously discussed in the blog entry Penningtons in Ashe Co., NC in Early Census Records - 1800.  These records can be pretty difficult to figure out who is who.  The 1810 Census is probably more difficult than the 1800 census because now they have done the disservice of only giving first initials.  So, once again, these are my theories and are not facts.  Check the records for yourself to see if you read them any differently.  

E Pennington - Ashe Co., NC
1 - Free White Persons, Males - under age of 10
1 - Free White Persons, Males - 16-25
1 - Free White Persons, Males - 26-44
1 - Free White Persons, Females - 16-25
1 - Number of household members under age 16
1 - Number of household members over 25
4 - Number of Household Members

I think that this individual is likely Ephraim Pennington b. 1769 - which would put him as as 41.  As previously discussed, I do not know who his wife is.  I am also unsure who all the children are.  However, the age fits for the white male of 16-25 to be Levi Pennington who was born in 1794.  This Ephraim is most likely the son of Ephraim b. 1745.

A Pennington - Ashe Co., NC
2 - Free White Persons, Males - under age of 10
1 - Free White Persons, Males - 16-25
1 - Free White Persons, Females - 16-25
2 - Number of household members under age 16
4 - Number of Household Members

I believe this is Aaron Pennington b. Abt 1786 in North Carolina who is a son of Ephraim Pennington (See 1800 Census Blog) The dates pretty well fit.  The oldest male in this household would have been in his early 20’s as would the oldest female.  Aaron’s wife was Ann Coldiron who was likely born about 1790 in Virginia, therefore the age would still fit.  There are two male children in the household.  Aaron and Ann had two sons:  Levi b. Abt 1807 and Henry b. Abt 1808.  It is also interesting to note that the line on the census is located right by an E Pennington and L Pennington.  As I believe this is a son of Ephraim Pennington with a brother of possibly Larkin - it is an interesting coincidence.

E Pennington - Ashe Co., NC
1 - Free White Persons, Males - 45 and over
1 - Free White Persons, Females - 45 and over
2 - Number of household members over 25
2 - Number of Household Members
I had thought that old Ephraim had passed and he might have.  If not, then this is likely Ephraim b. 1745 who would have been 65 years of age which is certainly in the realm of possibility.  Theoretically, this could also be Elijah, son of MIcajah as well.  He was b. In 1761 and married a Susannah Kelley.  I haven’t really been able to locate him with any certainty.  Since he doesn’t show up in the 1800 census, I don’t really think it is him.

E Pennington - Ashe Co., NC
1 - Free White Persons, Males - 10-15
1 - Free White Persons, Males - 16-25
1 - Free White Persons, Males - 26-44
4 - Free White Persons, Females - Under the age of 10
1 - Free White Persons, Females - 10-15
1 - Free White Persons, Females - 26-44
6 - Number of household members under age 16
2 - Number of household members over 25
9 - Number of Household Members

Theoretically this could be the Ephraim b. 1769 rather than the one I mentioned above.  The same information fits.  I am unaware of the age of the others in the household.  I also do not know the identity of this individual.  Perhaps the name is wrong.  There are a few missing Penningtons who I know are alive in this era, but I still can’t find out where they are.

L Pennington - Ashe Co., NC
1 - Free White Persons, Males - under age of 10
1 - Free White Persons, Males - 10-15
1 - Free White Persons, Males - 16-25
1 - Free White Persons, Males - 26-44
2 - Free White Persons, Females - Under the age of 10
2 - Free White Persons, Females - 10-15
1 - Free White Persons, Females - 26-44
6 - Number of household members under age 16
2 - Number of household members over 25
8 - Number of Household Members

This is where I go into the realm of theory.  I can’t identify this person with any certainty.  If I look at the 1815 Tax list, there are two Levi’s recorded in that tax list.  One of those is labeled as Levy, Jr - but I think that merely means that this is a younger Levi not that he is necessarily the son of the older Levi.  Levi b. 1767 would just fit into the category of male 26-44 in that he is 43 years of age.  I think that Levi either passes away or moves sometime after 1815.  As a son of Micajah Pennington, he likely had land that he either inherited from his father or his own land and could have been on the tax list without living there.  As for identifying the household members, I can’t do that with any certainty.  However, it is interesting to note that there are some Penningtons that don’t show up in the census records.  

M Pennington - Ashe Co., NC
1 - Free White Persons, Males - under age of 10
1 - Free White Persons, Males - 10-15
1 - Free White Persons, Males - 16-25
1 - Free White Persons, Males - 45 and over
1 - Free White Persons, Females - 45 and over
1 - Number of Slaves
2 - Number of household members under age 16
2 - Number of household members over 25
5 - Number of Household Members

I believe that this likely MIcajah b. 1743 with his wife, Rachel Jones b. 1740.  That would put them at age 77 and 80 respectively.  I am unable to identify the three young males recorded in the household.  Perhaps they are grandsons.  Since this household also has a slave and the 1800 census also showed a slave for Micajah Pennington’s  household.  I think it is reasonable to assume that this is the same household.

Saturday, January 28, 2017

Pennington’s in Ashe Co., NC in Early Census Records - 1800

It can be very difficult to decipher who is who in the census records from 1850 on because of the similarity of names.  There are multiple Penningtons in the region with similar names.  I can tell from personal experience, that it takes a lot of time and study to figure out who fits where.  I thought I would spend some time looking at some of the early census records of Ashe Co., NC.  Since, Ashe County was split off of Wilkes County in 1799, it seemed wisest to start with the 1800 census. I will start with a summary of each household then explain who I think the household members are.  These are my conclusions based on my knowledge of the family.

1800 Census - Morgan, Ashe Co., NC

Benj Pennington (Either Benjamin or Benajah Pennington)
1 - Free White Persons, Males - under age of 10
1 - Free White Persons, Males - 16-25
1 - Free White Persons, Females - 16-25
1 - Number of household members under age 16
3 - Number of Household Members

The oldest male in the household is likely around 20-25 years of age which would make said male born between 1775-1780.  The question is whether the name is Benjamin or Benajah.  Based on naming patterns, it is most likely Benajah.  The question is which one.  Micajah Pennington b. 1743 has a son name Benajah born in 1782 and another Benajah b. 1770 whose father is unknown.  I suspect that this is likely the son of Micajah - however it is difficult to identify the other household members as there isn’t a proven wife of Benajah that is known.  

Ephraim Pennington
1 - Free White Persons, Males - 10 - 15
1 - Free White Persons, Males - 45 and over
1 - Free White Persons, Females - 16-25
1 - Free White Persons, Females - 45 and over
1 - Number of Household members under age 16
2 - Number of Household members over 45
4 - Number of Household Members

I believe that this is the Ephraim who was likely born about 1745.  His father was possibly Ephraim b. 1720 and wife Elizabeth.  Am I sure about this...no.  There is nothing to really back up my supposition.  Based on DNA research, it is also likely that there is a close relationship between this Ephraim and Micajah b. 1743.  They could be cousins or brothers.  Ephraim’s wife’s name is unknown.  The male in the household who is aged 10-15 (b. 1785-1790) is interesting.  I think (based on my research and that of Jim Pennington) that it might be the Aaron Pennington who was born about 1787 in Ashe Co., NC.  Aaron died about 1860 in Harlan Co., KY and an Ephraim Pennington is listed as his father on the death record.  I do not know who the young female in the household is.

Ephraim Pennington
2 - Free White Persons, Males - under age of 10
1 - Free White Persons, Males - 26-44
1 - Free White Persons, Females - under age of 10
1 - Free White Persons, Females - 16-25
3 - Number of Household members under age 16
2 - Number of Household members over 25
5 - Number of Household Members

I believe that this is the Ephraim Pennington b. 1769 recorded in the 1850 census with son Andrew Pennington.  I believe that he is also the son of the previous Ephraim Pennington b. 1745 and therefore a brother to previously mentioned Aaron Pennington.  The identity of the spouse is unknown.  Another cousin has speculated that the wife might be Margaret Spencer based on the land records.  I believe that one of the males in the household is my 4th great grandfather, Levi Pennington b. 1784.  At a guess, I think the other young male is Larkin Pennington who dies sometime after 1840 in Whitley Co., KY.  He shows up in some land records in the area and Levi has a son named Larkin Pennington.  It is hard enough to identify young male children in a family but almost impossible to identify young females.  I am unable to identify this young female.

Levi Pennington
1 - Free White Persons, Males - under age of 10
1 - Free White Persons, Males - 26-44
2 - Free White Persons, Females - under age of 10
1 - Free White Persons, Females - 26-44
3 - Number of Household members under age 16
2 - Number of Household members over 25
5 - Number of Household Members

This Levi Pennington is most likely the son of Micajah Pennington b. 1743 and Rachel Jones and was therefore born 21 Dec 1757.  For many years, most researchers were convinced that Levi b. 1794 (m 4th great grandfather) was a son of this Levi and therefore a son of Micajah.  However, for many reasons many of us who research the Levi Pennington b. 1794 no longer believe this connection.  Therefore, very little of the information that I have on this Levi is what I would call trustworthy.  I think that this Levi leaves Ashe Co., NC for Lee Co., VA with most of the Micajah Pennington family.  I don’t believe that this is the Levi who is recorded in 1815 tax list but rather Levi b. 1794.

Micajah Pennington
2 - Free White Persons, Males - under age of 10
1 - Free White Persons, Males - 26-44
3 - Free White Persons, Females - under age of 10
1 - Free White Persons, Females - 16-25
5 - Number of Household members under age 16
1 - Number of Household members over 25
7 - Number of Household Members

I would identify this Micajah as Micajah, Jr b. 13 Dec 1763.  Once again, I can’t identify the spouse, so the adult female is unknown.  However, I have a better chance of identifying the children, I have the following children of Micajah, Jr.
William Thomas b. 1784
Joshua b. 1790
Micajah III b. 1794
James Daniel b. 1797
Margaret b. 1799
Charles b. 1804
Mariah b. 1806

I am unsure of the child named William Thomas as I have never really found him listed anywhere.  The two young males are likely Joshua and Micajah.  One of the female’s is definitely Margaret and I wouldn’t be surprised if James Daniel might have been recorded as the other female.  This family left Ashe Co., NC and ended up in Lee Co., VA and Harlan Co., KY.

Micajah Pennington
1 - Free White Persons, Males - 45 and over
1 - Free White Persons, Females - under age of 10
1 - Free White Persons, Females - 45 and over
1 - Number of Slaves
1 - Number of Household members under age 16
2 - Number of Household members over 45
4 - Number of Household Members

This is likely the Micajah Pennington b. 1743 family who is considered to be the progenitor of the Pennington Research Association Group 7. Micajah is unquestionably the older male in the household and Rachel Jones, his wife, is the older female in the house.  My guess is that the young female under the age of 10 is their granddaughter, Ann Little Pennington.  I have that she died before 1800 but that date is not absolute.  By that time, they had no children in the household who could have been that age, so it is either their illegitimate granddaughter, Ann or likely another granddaughter.  

Reuben Pennington
2 - Free White Persons, Males - under age of 10
1 - Free White Persons, Males - 26-44
1 - Free White Persons, Females - under age of 10
1 - Free White Persons, Females - 16-25
3 - Number of Household members under age 16
1 - Number of Household members over 25
5 - Number of Household Members

This Reuben is unknown to me.  From the research done by members of the PRA (Pennington Research Association) this is likely the son of Timothy Pennington and grandson of Ephraim Pennington b. 1720.  This would mean that he is likely a nephew of Micajah b. 1743 and Ephraim b. 1745.  

Wells Pennington
1 - Free White Persons, Males - 16-25
1 - Free White Persons, Females - 16-25
3 - Number of Household Members

This Wells Pennington is considered to be the progenitor of the PRA Group 32.  There is no documentary evidence which connects Wells to any of the other Penningtons that I have listed.  However, DNA evidence suggests that there is a family connection.  Wells Pennington was born in 1781 likely in what was then Wilkes Co., NC.  He married Elizabeth Strunk who was a few years older than he and they were likely married very close to 1800.  Their first child was born about 1802.  I think that Wells is likely a son of Ephraim b. 1745.  He is recorded in the 1820 census in Whitley Co., KY near Aaron Pennington who I think is possibly his brother.  Wells dies sometime after 1860 probably around Pulaski Co., KY which is where he was recorded in the 1860 census.

William Pennington
1 - Free White Persons, Males - 10-15
1 - Free White Persons, Males - 26-44
1 - Free White Persons, Females - under age of 10
1 - Free White Persons, Females - 10-15
1 - Free White Persons, Females - 16-25
1 - Free White Persons, Females - 45 and over
4 - Number of Household members under age 16
2 - Number of Household members over 25
7 - Number of Household Members

William Pennington
1 - Free White Persons, Males - 16-25
1 - Free White Persons, Females - 16-25
3 - Number of Household Members

I cannot identify either one of these William Penningtons with any expertise.  I suspect that they might be connected with the Group 28 William Pennington because they lived nearby.

So, what conclusions can you derive from this data and my theories.  The families are likely connected and this is suggested by the DNA evidence.  There is definitely shared ancestry between the Ephraim’s, Micajah’s, Levi’s and Wells.  It is possible that the Benj is Benajah and also likely connected.  Even though I can’t identify the Reuben and Williams - I believe that the Reuben is connected to what the PRA would call Group 4 and a descendant of Ephraim b. 1720...however, I don’t feel very confident with offering any opinions on the William’s.  Just this short look at the Pennington’s in the 1800 census should explain to you why I differentiate many of these male Penningtons by their birth years. There is a bad habit of naming multiple males in multiple generations the same name.  While there are certain names that help you identify which branch they might belong with - the only way to really identify which is which is labeling them with something as trivial as a birth year.  

Sunday, January 15, 2017

John Gallop...The Rest of the Story

The Gallup family has been exceptionally well researched.  Part of it is thanks to the fact that they are one of the early settlers of the "New World" with John Gallop having arrived in 1630 on the "Mary & John".  In addition, if you are doing any genealogical research, you have to be thankful to have New England ancestry because their is a wealth of records to draw from.  Not only that, these families have numerous connections and one never knows when you will run into another "cousin!"  That can be both a good thing and bad thing.  

John Gallop was born about 1591 in Mosterne, Dorset, England to John Gallop and Mary Crabb.  He married Christobel Bruschett on 19 Jan 1617 at St Mary's, Bridport, Dorsetshire, England.  Their family started fairly quickly and they had the following six children:

Joan b. 1618 d. 1691 m. Thomas Joy
John b. 1619 d. 1675 m. Hannah Anna Lake
William b. 1622 d. ?
Francis b. 1625 d. 1625
Nathaniel b. 1629 d. 1676
Samuel b. 1629 d. 1667-1679

Most of the American Gallup's that I have seen are descended from John, but there are a few descended from Nathaniel.  I have talked about John Gallop and the endeavor to get his wife and family to join him in America from England.  (See John Gallop - 10th Great Grandfather) There is much more to the story of John Gallop though.  He was an important man in America early in its history.  John Gallop was a talented ship captain and explorer of early New England.  It wasn't too long after he arrived, that he began exploring the coast near Boston and is considered to be one of the early explorers of the Connecticut coast.  During one of his exploratory forays up the coast, he discovered a shorter and safer course through the islands that were in Boston harbor.  The coastal areas were uncharted, and John Gallop helped provide valuable knowledge for future sailors.

You have to remember that John Gallop's entry into America was almost 10 years after the Mayflower had landed.  During that time, the population in America had grown and the colonists were running out of space.  John Gallop's forays up the coast provided much needed exploration for the colonists and potential land for the new arrivals as well as opportunity trade with the Native Americans.  At first, these traders were welcome because they brought items that were welcomed because they provided items that made the Native American's lives easier. These traders who traveled and brought goods and food from the Rhode Island and Connecticut coasts back to Boston.  They also provided communication as weJohll as goods and services to new settlements in Maine.  Eventually the colonists would begin to make new settlements in Connecticut and Rhode Island and captains like John Gallop were extremely important to the success of some of these early settlements.

When the possibility of profit, it was well apparent that there were going to be those who took advantage of the situation.  Some of the new settlements in Maine (whose land was claimed by the French) experienced the results of those wanting to take advantage of the profit.  An English captain named Dixy Bull was robbed by French privateers of beaver skins that were being transported for trade.  This English captain upset at being robbed decided to turn pirate raid ships bringing goods into Boston harbor.  John Gallop was sent out with his friend John Mason to attempt to find and stop Dixy Bull.  They ended up stranded because of a storm in Cape Ann harbor.  When they started again in the Spring, they spent several months patrolling the Maine coast for Dixy Bull.  He had decided to escape the pursuit and traveled to Virginia where he was eventually captured.

John Gallop was one of the early grantee's of land in the northern part of Boston and had land on the southeastern portion of a penninsula called Gallop's point.  He also owned Nix Mate Island and Gallop's Island.  After John Gallop's family arrived in 1933, the colonies were beginning to change rapidly.  Conneticut became the "land of opportunity" for many of the settlers.  Soon Dutch traders began to venture into the mix as well as English explorer, John Oldham.  In addition, there were tribal wars that was definitely going impact the area.  The small relatively friendly Connecticut tribes lost in battle to the Mohegans, a branch of the Mohawks and the new colonists were about to land right in the middle of local rivalries.  It was apparent that the Natives were no longer to be considered necessarily friendly.

During the spring of 1636, John Gallop was sailing with his three sons (John, Samuel & Nathaniel) with goods on a trading trip.  He saw a ship anchored off of Block island and noticed that the rigging was loose and the ship appeared to be deserted.  As he got closer to the ship, he recognized it as John Oldham's ship and noticed that there were men who appeared to be Native American's laying asleep on the deck.  As he hailed them, some of the Natives slipped over the side on a canoe and headed to shore.  Others loosened the anchor and tried to slip away.  John Gallup and his sons pursued the ship and the boys armed the guns and shot them towards the ship.  Some of the Natives tried to hide below and John Gallop pursued the ship and rammed it with his own and tied the two ships together.  Some tried to escape and John and his son took a few prisoners.  They found John Oldham in his cabin murdered with his skull bashed in.  John Gallop took the valuables off of the ship attempted to tow the ship to shore, but was unable to do so and eventually had to let it loose.

When news of the murder spread throughout the colonists, it spread a lot of fear but also a quest for revenge.  You could argue that this incident was a turning point.  No longer would the colonists view the Natives as friends or vice versa.  The upcoming battles would eventually escalate into a war that we know today as "King Philip's War!"  It is interesting to note that John Gallop was not a man who was necessarily allied with the Puritans and their religious beliefs.  He was considered by the language of the day a "God Fearing" man and had a good relationship with the Puritan community as well as a good relationship with the local Native Americans.  I believe that John Gallop can be considered to be one of the most important men of the young colony.  He was an experienced sailor who navigated and charted the waters of the New England coastline as well as discovering route through the maze of Boston channel to the city of Boston that made the route safer and easier to navigate.

John Gallop doesn't really appear in the records much after the incident with Oldham and his ship.  It assumed that he lived out his life still sailing his ship and living in his home on Gallop's point with his family.  We know that he died in 1649 because his will enter's probate.  We also know that his wife, Christobel Bruschett is still alive and that he is survived by his oldest son John Gallup, Jr, daughter, Joan Gallup (Joy) as well as sons Samuel and Nathaniel.  His son William Gallop returned to England and is reported as dying while fighting for Cromwell.